How To Understand The Process Of Glycolysis

Filed under: Glycolysis Process - 06 Nov 2012  | Spread the word !

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Glycolysis is a process that probably evolved billions of years ago when there was almost no molecular oxygen present in the atmosphere. Glycolysis is the process when one glucose molecule is broken down and forms  two forms of pyruvic acid. This process involves several steps and occurs in plant cells, the cells of microorganisms and animal cells.

In the first stage of the process, ATP energizes the molecules that have to be expended in the process. The next thing that happens during this process is related to the six-carbon glucose molecule which converts into intermediary compounds, which are later split into two three-carbon compounds.


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ATP molecules are synthesized using the energy that is created during the chemical reactions. The result is that four ATP molecules are synthesized and two of them are used during glycolysis.

Another thing that happens during this process is the conversion of NAD to NADH, plus a hydrogen ion. NADH will be used in the electron transport system and its energy will be then released.


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Glycolysis is a process that uses no oxygen, so it’s considered anaerobic. For bacteria and fermentation, this process is the only source of energy. Nonetheless, glycolysis is an efficient process because an important amount of energy remains in the two molecules of pyruvic acid.


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Usually, such a process is more difficult to understand, but if it’s taken step by step, you’ll have no problems. Read the following instructions:

1. First of all, you have to include structure names, enzymes, ATP, Pi and H2O.

2. Then, divide glycolysis in two phases: the first one is called energy investment phase and the second is energy payoff.

3. Additionally, start to learn the energy payoff phase, which involves manipulating a three carbon carbon to eventually yield pyruvate. All you have to do is to fill in the gap workaholic and that’s all.

Thus, this process is not as difficult as you may think, mainly if you take it step by step.

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Glycolysis – Everything You Need to Know

Filed under: Uncategorized - 28 Aug 2012  | Spread the word !

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Are finals coming and you want to learn more about glycolysis and to better understand this process? If so, then you have come to the right place. Glycolysis is the anaerobic catabolism of glucose. This metabolic process converts glucose into pyruvate and releases free energy which is then used to form the high-energy compounds ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and NADH (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide).

In order words, here is what glycolysis means:

  • every living cell needs energy to live and to function;
  • glucose is the main energy source used by cells;
  • glycolysis–which occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell–extracts energy from glucose;
  • glycolysis converts a molecule of glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid;

This process occurs in virtually all cells. In prokaryote cells, glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm, while in eukaryotes it occurs in the cytosol.

Here is a great video detailing every step of the process called glycolysis. After watching it, you will surely be able to understand it better and get an excellent score on school quizzes!

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Industrial PET Waste Recycled By Glycolysis

Filed under: Glycolysis - 24 Jul 2012  | Spread the word !

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Polyethylene terephtalate is a thermoplastic polyester (PET) that features great mechanical and thermal properties. It’s also one of the versatile engineering plastics that is used for manufacturing bottles, packaging, as well as textiles, video, audio tapes, as well as photographic films.

 


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Glycolysis is involved in the chemical recycling of PET, as well as other processes such as:

  • hydrolysis
  • methanolysis

Additionally, PET can be depolymerised by glycolysis and results are:

  • oligomeric diols
  • oligomeric polyols
  • a mixture of its oligomers

 


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One of the most interesting and studied glycolysis reaction of PET is with an excess of 2,2’-oxydiethanol (diethylene glycol, DEG) or with 1,2-ethanediol (ethylene glycol, EG). The result of this reaction consists of  polyols of high crystalinity.

The crystallisation of polyols has been studied by G. Colomines and his co-workers. Their studies have shown that the polyols obtained through glycolysis of PET using a mixture of DEG were less amorphous than those obtained using oligoesters.

When polyester polyols are prepared, two processes take place:

  • depolymerization of PET and the result is a glycolysed product (GP) such as a mixture of BHET, oligomers and unreacted glycols.
  • GP is reacted with dicarboxylic acids, glycols and other additives, the result being polyester polyols.

There are recent studies that try to observe what happens after recycling of industrial PET waste by glycolysis with EG directed to BHET and  glycolysis in the presence of glycerol and adipic acid, which are directed to polyester polyols with an increased stability against crystalization.

 


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Industrial PET was analyzed from various points of view such as:

  • intrinsic viscosity
  • melting point
  • acetaldehyde (AA), EG
  • the content of water
  • end-carboxylic groups 
  • acid number (AN)

 


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Glycolysis is one of the cost-effective viable process when chemically recycling PET waste.  During glycolysis, a  lot of things take place such as:

  • ester linkages are broken and replaced by hydroxyl terminals
  • waste is converted into BHET and its oligomers: dimmer and trimmer

Additionally, the extent of depolymerization of PET depends on the excess of EG taken for glycolysis.

Studies have shown that the products of recycling of industrial PET waste through glycolysis with EG contain an increased amount of bis(hydroxyethyl) terephthalate (BHET), this process being very complex and important.

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Glycolysis Ten Steps

Filed under: Uncategorized - 15 Jun 2012  | Spread the word !

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Glycolysis is a complex process that includes enzymatic reactions, very important for many processes. Without this chemical process, no living creature would be able to survive. One of its main effects is energy generating, being the most popular metabolic pathways. Briefly, this process transforms glucose in pyruvate, but what is happening during such a phenomenon is much more complex and many chemical reactions take place. Such an important chemical reaction wouldn’t have been  possible without Louis Pasteur, but Eduard Buchner was the scientist who later discovered important things as well. Nonetheless, another two scientists contributed to such an important discovery: William Youngalong and Nick Sheppard. Later, new essential elements were revealed by Otto Meyerhof and his work was continued by Louis Leloir. It’s amazing how many people were interested in this process and how each of them added something new, but very important.

This process is an anaerobic metabolic pathway, which is found in the cytosol of cells, forming then adenosine triphosphate. This chemical reaction serves as a precursor for other reactions and is also a recipient of products or several pathways. It’s also essential for our metabolism, being involved even in our early history of life.One of the main phases of the process is when one molecule of glucose is converted to two molecules of pyruvic acid.

Along the way, many types of molecules are reduced to NADH, which carries high-energy electrons and later new transformations of NADH and ATP take place, leaving a pair of three-carbon pyruvates. Glycolysis has ten steps which can be divided into two stages. The five steps are named the preparatory ones, being actually the first stage of the process. Other five steps form two molecules of pyruvate and four of ATP. Glycolysis also has several control points and is regulated during several steps. Later, during the process, aerobically respiring cells will produce oxidative phosphorylation, which is also a complex chemical reaction. Those cells which don’t respire aerobically, they cannot do this. In the absence of oxygen, the pyruvate is turned to NAD and these reactions are usually known as fermentations. Many bacteria, as well as some plants and animals produce lactic acid, while bacteria and yeast produce ethanol and carbon dioxide. Fermentations are used a lot by industry to produce these compounds, but cheaply, the main products being bread, beer, as well as wine and yoghurt.

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Facts On Glycolysis Process

Filed under: Glycolysis Process - 19 May 2012  | Spread the word !

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Glycolysis is a process that supposes a sequence of enzymatic reactions which have two vital functions, at least when it comes to living organisms. For starters, the compound is highly important in metabolizing simple six-carbon sugars, and secondly it includes the process of producing a small amount of ATP. In this context it is important to mention the fact that in the lack of such a chemical process, our bodies, but also all living organisms, will not be able to work properly, the process being essential for the generation of energy, too. It occurs on the same principles, with small variations, in all living organisms. This is one of the oldest known metabolic pathways.

One of the most common pathway types is the Embden-Mayerhof-Parnas pathway, also known as EMP pathway. Being first discovered by the researchers which have given its name, Gustav Embden, Otto Meyerhof and Jakub Karol Parnas, this pathway surely has an amazing importance, but it is crucial to know that it is not the only pathway to which the chemical process refers. Another pathway that can be included in this category is the Entner-Doudoroff pathway. Other heterofermentative and homofermentative pathways are also known. Regardless of the situation we may be talking of, it also great to be aware of the fact that the whole pathway will be divided in two general phases. They are the preparatory phase and the pay off phase. During the preparatory phase, the ATP is consumed. This is the reason why this phase is also known as the investment one. The pay off phase is the one in which ATP is being produced. Most discoveries in this area of the process date back to the 1940s. 

The preparatory phase in glycolysis has five main steps. It consumes energy and it is going to convert the glucose into three carbon sugar phosphates. The five steps are the pay off phase, the biochemical logic, the regulation, but also hexokinase and phosphofructokinase. If understanding this process can be quite hard, understanding the role that glycolysis reactions have in the human body is not difficult at all. In case the rates of the substances produced are not the normal ones, various serious conditions can be formed. A dysfunctional metabolism process can lead to improper cell development and as a consequence to cancer related conditions, but also to conditions such as the Alzheimer’s disease. In case the levels of the substance are too much increased, the effects on the human organism can be fatal. 

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Glycolysis – The History

Filed under: Uncategorized - 19 Apr 2012  | Spread the word !

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The term glycolysis is formed by two distinct words, glycose, a term that existed and the degradation lysis. The glycolysis is the process that converts glucose in pyruvate. The glycolysis is a sequence which includes ten reactions and ten intermediate compounds. The compounds offer the entry points for glycolysis. These intermediates are usually monosaccharides like glucose, fructose and galactose. The glycolysis happens in almost all the organisms, no matter if they are aerobic or anaerobic. This process is one of the oldest known to function as a metabolic pathway and it takes place in the cytosol of the cell. There are several types of glycolysis, but the most common type is the EMP. The EMP pathway was discovered by Gustav Embden, Otto Meyerhof and Jakub Karol Parnas and named after them. Another one which is very known is the Entner-Doudoroff pathway. The EMP pathway has two different phases.

The first is the preparatory phase, also named the investment phase and the second is named the pay off phase. The history of the discovery of glycolysis begins with Louis Pasteur, in 1860. Back then, he discovered that the fermentation is the result of the work of microorganisms. 37 years later, Eduard Buchner was the one who discovered that parts of certain cells can cause it intentionally. In 1905, Arthur Harden worked with William Youngalong and Nick Sheppard and they made new discoveries related to the process of fermentation.

Most of the details discovered and put together related to glycolysis were made in the 1940s by Otto Meyerhof. His work was later continued by Luis Leloir. It was very hard to discover all the details of the glycolysis because of the short life span of the reactions that make it. Because of the discoveries of these men, related to glycolysis, years later a connection was made between diseases and this process. Apparently, the glycolysis process has an important connection with various types of cancers and also with the Alzheimers’ diseae. The connection of glycolysis with cancer was observed in 1930 and that with the Alzheimer’s some decades later during research made in order to find a cure for this disease.

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The Complexity Of Glycolysis

Filed under: Uncategorized - 27 Mar 2012  | Spread the word !

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Glycolysis is a complex chemical process that takes place in many environments. Glycolysis is the phenomenon that transforms the glucose in pyruvate. The process involves ten reactions, the most known type of glycolysis being the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway (EMP pathway). The process has two phases: the preparatory one and the pay off phase. In the first phase ATP (adenosine triphosphate)  is consumed, while in the latter is produced. Glycolysis discovery underwent several stages. It began with with the microorganisms which produce the fermentation discovered by Louis Pasteur. Glycolysis continued with the discovery of the extracts of certain cells discovered by Eduard Buchner. In 1905, it was an important moment for new discoveries about glycolysis: it was determined a heat-sensitive high-molecular subcellular fraction.

Glycolysis has several step, the first five being considered preparatory such as pay-off phase, biochemical logic, regulation, hexokinase and phosphofructokinase. Our body could not work without glycolysis. The chain of reactions involved in this phenomenon can be easily affected. Some specialists claim that an unbalanced glycolysis can cause diseases such as Alzheimer, cancer, as well as genetic diseases. These theories will be researched again in order to find many things and see if they are true or not.

Fortunately, things are much easier now for them as there are many advanced tools and instruments, as well as great computer programs. It may be complicated to understand how glycolysistakes place, but there are many diagrams that show each stage of it and so, it is easier to understand the process. This complex reaction is found in all humans, animals and plants. The process is a constant chemistry lesson in schools, as it is one of the most important, as well as essential processes. Pupils make experiments in the laboratories to understand it better. They will know not only its stages, but also its importance. The name of Alzheimer’s disease comes from “glyco”, meaning sugar and “lysis”, meaning “break:.

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Things to Know About Glycolysis

Filed under: Uncategorized - 15 Feb 2012  | Spread the word !

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Glucose is perhaps one of the most important substances that our body needs in order to function properly and to provide the organism with the right amount of energy. Glycolysis is a sequence of ten reactions of ten different compounds, that boosts up our energy and combines with fatty acids to form fat. Glycolysis occurs everywhere, in both aerobic and anaerobic environments, and it is a known fact that is the most ancient known metabolic pathway.

If the rates of Glycolysis are much higher than those of the normal tissues, then this imbalance can easily lead to malignant tumor cells. This phenomenon was discovered in 1930 by Otto Warburg, and it is still known today as the Warburg effect. The Warburg effect also states that cancer is primarily caused by a dysfunction in the mitochondrial metabolism, because of an uncontrolled rate of cell growth. Researchers are racking their brains to find a way of interfering with this mitochondrial metabolism and treat cancer by reducing Glycolysis. If the quantity of Glycolysis is reduced, then the cells will not have enough genetic material to reproduce themselves, thus cancer will not manifest itself.

Not only can high levels of Glycolysis produce cancer, but also Alzheimer disease. One particularly interesting fact about Glycolysis is that it is found in basically any part of the body, even in the brain. It is known that Alzheimer is a very dangerous disease that affects the nervous tissue of the brain and suppresses its functions. A Glycolysis imbalance in the frontal-temporal-parietal part of the brain has been determined as one of the main causes for Alzheimer. Moreover, Glycolysis is also the substance responsible for sugars decomposing glucose in the liver and the muscles, that prevents the sugars from depositing on the tissues.

Aside from the fatal consequences that high levels of Glycolysis may have on the human organism, this substance has got another role in industry. Glycolysis is also responsible for the process of fermentation, especially in the brewing industry. Glycolysis gives a helping hand in the fermentation process where yeast is converted into alcohol. Glycolysis is a very complex process and it has a lot of aspects, that scientists do not fully understand.

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Glycolysis In Diseases

Filed under: Uncategorized - 23 Jan 2012  | Spread the word !

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The glycolysis is a very important process in the healthy functioning of every organism. Although mutations of the complex transformation process are rarely seen, sometimes the chain of the ten reactions can be affected and thus, distorted. This event will lead to several occurrences that will create some health problems. The glycolysis is, generally speaking, the transformation from glucose to pyruvate. There are several disease which have been linked to the ill-functioning of the glycolysis process: genetic diseases, Alzheimer’s disease and cancer.

In terms of the genetic diseases, the bad functioning of the glycolysis process will lead to the difficulty of the affected cells to function normally. As a result, the cell dies, leading to a kind of mutation, one of the most frequent being the Pyruvate kinase deficiency. As the transformation of the glycolysis is not complete and the cells are not functioning properly, the diseases that will surface out of this process are mainly of the immune system, most of the time causing anaemia. In association with the Alzheimer’s diseases, the malfunction of the glycolysis transformation leads to a deficiency of the substances in the cortices. In connection to cancer, it is not that the glycolysis does not function, but that the process is too fast, creating a surplus of substances in the tumour areas. This field is still to be researched and documented, as specialists have used this process to monitor the reactions of the cells in the tumours to the treatment. In addition to this, they are continuously trying to find a treatment which will reduce the process to a lower, more normal level, in hope of diminishing the effects of the cancerous cells. 

Thus, the glycolysis is a very important transformation process in the core of the cells. The advert from any of the ten stages of this reaction can cause a lot of damage to the cells and the entire organism, leading to serious illnesses and conditions. There are still a lot of studies to be made in this domain, in order to find the proper adjustments that will stop the transformation from malfunctioning.

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The Importance of Glycolysis

Filed under: Uncategorized - 30 Nov 2011  | Spread the word !

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Glycolysis is a very important process, in which glucose is converted into pyruvate. As it is an anaerobic process, glycolysis occurs in the absence of oxygen, but there are times when it happens aerobically as well. In eukaryotes, glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm, more exactly in the cytosol. Glycolysis is actually the first cellular respiration step, and it consists of 10 sequences. These sequences are further divided into two phases: the preparatory phase and the pay off phase. Throughout these phases, 10 intermediary compounds are being used, which are basically the entry points of the process.

Examples of intermediates can be fructose, glucose and galactose, which are mostly common in monosaccharides. In the first phase, ATP is consumed. ATP stands for adenosine triphosphate and cells use it as a coenzyme. ATP has a very important role in the cell, as it carries chemical energy. Then, the second phase is the one in which ATP is actually being produced. Other materials formed as a result of the glycolysis process include NADH, which stands for reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. In glycolysis, a molecule of glucose in converted into two molecules of pyruvic acid. So glycolysis is basically the starting point for other respiration processes, like fermentation. Everybody knows that fermentation is the process in which yeast is being converted into alcohol. And everybody enjoys drinking beer, so here is one of the reasons why glycolysis is so important.

The organisms that ferment sugar are strongly dependent on glycolysis, as this process represents an important pathway for them. The importance of glycolysis resides, thus, from the fact that the aerobic and anaerobic respiration processes would not be possible without it. For us, humans, it may be hard to understand glycolysis, as it is a complex process, but one thing is for sure: its importance is undeniable. A simple definition of glycolysis, to understand it better, would be to think of the two words that it is formed from. You will find out that glycolysis actually means sugar breaking, so you can see that figuring out what glycolysis implies is not that hard.

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